This study explains what is prayer, the different forms of prayer and its use and its misuse.
What is worship? p1
What is/is not prayer? p1
Why bother? p4
Attitude to prayer p6
The Master’s prayers p7
Why prayer is not answered? p16
What is worship?
“Oh come, let us worship and bow down. Let us kneel before יְהֹוָה , our Maker,” (Psa. 95:6). Worship #H7812 שָׁחָה shachah *2360 shaha is to bow down before or in the presence of. In some of the Tehellim (Psalms) the first part of the verse is mirrored in the second part. Here the word worship and bow down are reflections of one another.
“All the angels were standing around the throne, the Elders, and the four living creatures; and they fell on their faces before His throne, and worshiped יְהֹוָה,” (Rev. 7:11). Worship #G4352 προσκυνέω proskyneo is to pay homage to. In this passage all the Messengers, Elders and living beasts all come into the Presence of יְהֹוָה `Elohim.
I believe that to worship means to come into the presence of whatever or whoever is being worshipped. There are several means of worship: prayer, studying the word, praising and singing. “Then the King will tell those on his right hand, ‘Come, blessed of my Father, inherit the kingdom prepared for you from the foundation of the world…but the righteous into eternal life.’” (Matt. 25:34-46). In this passage those who have helped others are to be considered as having ministered to the Master Himself. This, too, must be looked upon as worship as it is impossible to clothe, feed and water the Master without coming into His Presence.
What is Prayer?
“A Psalm by David. Hear my prayer, יְהֹוָה. Listen to my petitions. In your faithfulness and righteousness, relieve me.” (Psa. 143:1). Here the word prayer #H8605 תְּפִלָּה tephillah *1776a tepilla is most commonly translated as intercession. “All things, whatever you ask in prayer, believing, you will receive.” (Matt. 21:22). Here the word prayer #G4335 προσευχή proseuche has the common meaning of to approach or come into the presence
It is my belief that prayer is one form of worship (along with singing hymns/choruses/psalms, studying the Word, doing good works and fellowship with other Believers). Of all these forms of worship, prayer is probably is the most intimate form. The angels and living creatures of Heaven come into the presence of יְהֹוָה as the King of the Universe, but Believers come into His presence as Abba Father (Gal. 4:6).
“I exhort therefore, first of all, that petitions, prayers, intercessions, and thanksgivings, be made for all men: For this is good and acceptable in the sight of יְהֹוָה our Saviour;” (1 Tim. 2:1, 3). #G1162 δέησις deases petition, asking, entreaty; #G4335 προσευχή proseuche; #G1783 ἔντευξις enteuxis interview. Therefore, prayer can be considered as approaching the Presence of יְהֹוָה `Elohim in order to plead on behalf of a person, oneself or another and is what יְהֹוָה requires of people.
“Search me, יְהֹוָה, and know my heart. Try me, and know my thoughts.” (Psa.139:23). Here, the heart is considered to be the depository of Man’s desires. The Psalmist is not going to יְהֹוָה with a list of wants for he says that יְהֹוָה already knows our desires and thoughts. Rather he has approached יְהֹוָה, then called upon יְהֹוָה to check that these thoughts are righteous and in accordance with His will.
“Let us therefore draw near with boldness to the throne of grace, that we may receive mercy, and may find grace for help in time of need. (Heb. 4:16). In the Letter to the Hebrews, the writer not only tells Believers to approach יְהֹוָה, but that it is done with a spirit of boldness. It is יְהֹוָה who is calling Believers to Him.
And they heard the voice of the יְהֹוָה `Elohiym walking in the garden in the cool of the day: and Adam and his wife hid themselves from the presence of the יְהֹוָה `Elohiym amongst the trees of the garden. (Gen. 3:8). “He has shown you, O man, what is good. What does the יְהֹוָה require of you, but to act justly, to love mercy, and to walk humbly with your `Elohiym?” (Mic. 6:8). יְהֹוָה delights when Believers come into His presence to spend time with Him and it is my belief that prayer is time spent in the presence of יְהֹוָה. It is this time of fellowship that is dear to our Abba Father.
Heb. 4:16 and Mic. 6:8 look, at first to be contradictory, the former saying to be bold and the latter to be humble. However, the writer of Hebrews is saying that Believers have nothing to fear when entering into the presence of יְהֹוָה `Elohiym. Mikhah on the other hand is saying that Believers come into the presence, not by anything that they have achieved or accomplished and acknowledge that they do so only as part of the grace given to Believers upon salvation.
I have strength for all things in Him that gives me power. (Phil. 4:13 DBY). Prayer is power. It enables Man to do things for himself rather than getting יְהֹוָה to do it for him. As a boy grows up, it pleases his father when he can see his son doing more and more for himself with the father giving him the means or tools to carry out the work; especially if it is to help the father. How much more so does it please our Heavenly Father when we can do more enabled by Him.
“He went forward a little, fell on his face, and prayed, saying, ‘My Father, if it is possible, let this cup pass away from me; nevertheless, not what I desire, but what you desire.’” (Matt. 26:39). “Concerning this thing, I begged the יְהֹוָה three times that it might depart from me. He has said to me, ‘My grace is sufficient for you, for my power is made perfect in weakness.’ Most gladly therefore I will rather glory in my weaknesses, that the power of Messiah may rest on me.” (2 Cor. 12:8, 9). Prayer is the ability to accept. In both of these situations, the Master and Sh`aul pray for deliverance. However, the answer is not that they be removed from the trial but that they do יְהֹוָה will. Prayer is not a means of escape or to be exempted from trial but to receive from יְהֹוָה the power to accept His will and overcome or conquer the situation. If Believers look upon prayer as only a means of escape, they will be sadly disillusioned. If prayer is looked upon as a means to overcome or conquer through the power of יְהֹוָה and is the divine dynamic, יְהֹוָה will make things happen. (Barclay 2).
“For this cause, we also, since the day we heard this, do not cease praying and making requests for you, that you may be filled with the knowledge of His will in all spiritual wisdom and understanding, that you may walk worthily of יְהֹוָה, to please Him in all respects, bearing fruit in every good work, and increasing in the knowledge of יְהֹוָה; strengthened with all power, according to the might of His glory, for all endurance and perseverance with joy; giving thanks to the Father…” (Col. 1:9-12a). Prayer must never be considered as a means of making יְהֹוָה listen to Believers, but rather a means by which Believers listen to יְהֹוָה. It is a means of discerning יְהֹוָה’s will and seeking יְהֹוָה‘s power to perform it. Prayer, therefore, can be considered as asking a) to know יְהֹוָה‘s will; b) for wisdom to apply this knowledge; c) for guidance in the right conduct to apply this wisdom and d) the power to carry out יְהֹוָה‘s will (Barclay(4) quoting Moule).
Prayer is not a ‘wish list’ to take to the Father.
Prayer is not used to inform יְהֹוָה of a particular situation as He knows all things at all times. “…for your Father knows what things you need, before you ask Him.” (Matt. 6:8b).
Prayer is not singing praise and worship songs, hymns or Psalms as these are not dialogues and are used to edify the singer.
Prayer is not laying-on hands to heal the sick.
Prayer is not used to cast out demons.
Prayer is not a means of escape.
Prayer is not an excuse for inactivity.
Prayer will not carry out the task for us but is the means to strengthen, enable and equip Believers to complete the task in hand (Barclay 3).
“When He had said this, He cried with a loud voice, ‘El’azar, come out!’” (John 11:43). After praying to the Father, the Master speaks directly to El’azar (Lazarus). “He said to them, “Because of your unbelief. For most assuredly I tell you, if you have faith as a grain of mustard seed, you will tell this mountain, ‘Move from here to there,’ and it will move; and nothing will be impossible for you. But this kind does not go out except by prayer and fasting.” (Matt. 17:20, 21). Fasting is a time of preparation; a time spent with the Father. It is a time of humbling that shows Believers come to rely on יְהֹוָה rather than themselves in the same manner as Shabbat, Shemittah and Yovel years. Notice that the Believer commands the mountain directly and does not ask יְהֹוָה `Elohiym to move it.
“He [the Master] rose up from the synagogue and entered into Shim`on’s house. Shim`on’s mother-in-law was afflicted by a great fever and they begged Him for her. He stood over her and rebuked the fever and it left her. Immediately she rose up and served them.” (Luke 4:39). Notice again that the Master addresses the fever directly. As with the case of the mountain, the onus is on the Believer to vocally tackle the crisis. However, this must be on the clear understanding that the Believer is the means of יְהֹוָה performing the miracle and has no power of him- or herself. Another note of interest in the healing of Shim`on’s mother-in-law, is that, not only was the fever healed but so was the causal infection and the fatigue so usual after a fever.
“When they came to the multitude, a man came to Him, kneeling down to Him, saying… ‘So I brought him to your disciples, and they could not cure him’… Yehshuah rebuked him, the demon went out of him, and the boy was cured from that hour. Then the disciples came to Yehshuah privately, and said, ‘Why were we not able to cast it out?’ He said to them, ‘Because of your unbelief. For most assuredly I tell you, if you have faith as a grain of mustard seed, you will tell this mountain, ‘Move from here to there,’ and it will move; and nothing will be impossible for you. But this kind doesn’t go out except by prayer and fasting.’” (Matt. 17:14-21). This is an often quoted passage to show that to be especially effective, prayer must be accompanied by fasting. However, this does not seem feasible in the above situation. The Master did not say that when a particular difficult situation arises, then it is essential that prayer and fasting. What I believe this passage is teaching is that prayer must be focused with no distractions. In order to carry this out a Believer must be disciplined in both Spirit and flesh. It is too late to fast when the situation presents itself.
“Watch and pray, that you do not enter into temptation. The spirit indeed is willing, but the flesh is weak.” (Matt. 26:41). Willing #4289 πρόθυμος prothymos is ready and willing; weak #772 ἀσθενής asthenes weak sick impotent. The spirit is strengthened by regular praying; the flesh is strengthened by fasting. However this is not as many denominations and faiths have it when fasting is made a once or twice weekly event. Mortify therefore your members which are upon the earth.” (Col. 3:5 WEB). Certainly it was not the act of self-flageration (whipping) that Sha’ul was taking about in this verse but rather casting off the weaknesses (ἀσθενής asthenes) of the flesh. Like any athlete or soldier the more, the longer, the harder, the heavier etc a person works out, the better prepared they are for the main event.
“in whom also we were assigned an inheritance, having been foreordained according to the purpose of Him who works all things after the counsel of His will;” (Eph. 1:11). If all things have been planned by יְהֹוָה before the foundation of the world, is it not unreasonable to ask, “Why bother?” Are we not in danger of praying contrary to the will of יְהֹוָה? In praying in accordance with יְהֹוָה will, we may be in fact praying that which was foreknown by Him. The faith involved with the person praying maybe the essential factor that enables יְהֹוָה to act.
There is also another factor to consider: free-will. The prayer for another person’s salvation is not to change the plan of יְהֹוָה, but is needed to change the mind/spirit of the prayer’s recipient. “He prays to יְהֹוָה, and He is favourable to him, So that he sees his face with joy: He restores to man His righteousness.” (Job 33:26). This is the main reason that we should pray; for it delights our Maker.
Prayer is a time of talking with our Father, taking our concerns to Him. It is a time of intimate dialogue between the person praying and the Father. However, it must be remembered where we are…..“Enter into His gates with thanksgiving, Into His courts with praise. Give thanks to Him, and bless His name.” (Psa. 100:4). …and to whom we are addressing, “And because you are sons, יְהֹוָה sent out the Ruach of His Son into your hearts, crying, “Abba, Father!’” (Gal. 4:6).
“Having therefore, brothers, boldness to enter into the set apart place by the blood of Yehshuah…let us draw near with a true heart in fullness of faith, having our hearts sprinkled from an evil conscience, and having our body washed with pure water,” (Heb. 10:19, 22). “Let us therefore come boldly to the throne of grace, that we may obtain mercy and find grace to help in time of need.” (Heb. 14:16). This is the correct and proper way and attitude to approach יְהֹוָה `Elohiym.
There are 4 different forms of prayer: i) general minute-by-minute talking; ii) corporate and iii) private; iv) ‘grace’. There is added efficacy when spoken out aloud as the Bible says “so shall my word be that goes forth out of my mouth: it shall not return to me void, but it shall accomplish that which I please, and it shall prosper in the thing whereto I sent it. (Isa. 55:11). Believers must understand the power and authority יְהֹוָה has given to us in the spoken word. When we pray according to the Father’s will, His words become our words.
i) General – This takes the form of ‘talking’ to our Heavenly Father as we would our earthly father. It should be a continuous dialogue between the Believer and יְהֹוָה. It should take the form of recognisable speech as it covers everyday experiences.
ii) Corporate – This is prayer within a group setting. There is no need to ‘take turns’ as our Father listens to multiple prayers continually. It should be in recognisable speech. “He who speaks in another language edifies himself, but he who prophesies edifies the assembly. (1 Cor. 14:4). “Otherwise if you bless with the spirit, how will he who fills the place of the unlearned say the ‘Amein’ at your giving of thanks, seeing he does not know what you say? (1 Cor. 14:16). #G281 ἀμήν amēn is a loneword from the Hebrew #H543 אָמֵן ‘amen *116b referring to truth or affirmation of what has been said. Therefore, when Believers pray together and say Ameyn to another’s prayer it means that we are in total agreement with the prayer. The ‘so-be-it’ adds our authority to the prayer. It must not be said automatically but after careful consideration. The whole passage (1 Cor. 14:1-40) discusses the appropriateness of speaking in tongues in a corporate setting. Speaking in tongues edifies the speaker but not the hearers. Speaking with understanding edifies both the speaker and the hearers. When יְהֹוָה requires a Believer to speaking out into an assembly, is not a prayer to יְהֹוָה but a word from יְהֹוָה to the assembly that should always be accompanied by an interpretation.
iii) Private – “But you, when you pray, enter into your inner chamber, and having shut your door, pray to your Father who is in secret, and your Father who sees in secret will reward you openly. (Matt. 6:6). This should take the form of speaking in tongues. “In the same way, the Ruach also helps our weaknesses, for we do not know how to pray as we ought. But the Ruach Himself makes intercession for us with groanings which cannot be uttered.” (Rom. 8:26). Without any divine knowledge, by speaking in tongues allows the Ruach haKodesh to direct our prayers and these cannot be anything other than according to יְהֹוָה will.
iv) Grace – “He took the five loaves and the two fish, and looking up to heaven, He blessed and broke the loaves, and He gave to His disciples to set before them, and He divided the two fish among them all.” (Mark 6:41). This is a prayer for a specific occasion; that of blessing יְהֹוָה for a meal. It may be 1) or 2) above and usually done before eating.
Attitude to Prayer
“He lifted up his eyes and looked, and saw that three men stood opposite him. When he saw them, he ran to meet them from the tent door, and bowed himself to the ground,” (Gen. 18:2). Avraham has had several intimate encounters with the Pre-incarnate Messiah (Gen. 12:1 ,7; 13:4; 15:1; 17:1). At each of these times, Avraham had come away from the meeting being greatly blessed. However, this was not the primary cause for his jubilation. The second part of v2 shows Avraham falling down in front of Messiah to worship Him. Our attitude towards prayer must be of a similar nature; that of coming into the presence of יְהֹוָה to worship Him for who He is and not for what we can get out of the encounter. There is, of course, the benefit that when we come into the presence of יְהֹוָה as an act of worship, blessings will surely follow.
My wife and I look after our youngest granddaughter two afternoons a week. As much as she loves to be with us, when her daddy comes to pick her up, she rushes to him for a hug, a kiss and to tell him everything that has happened that day. Having already spoken to us when he started out home, he knew what she had done. However, it was his delight to hear it from her own mouth. How much more does our Abba Father delight to hear how our day has been? Do Believers so look forward to this time together that we ‘rush’ to be in His presence?
“For my yoke is easy, and my burden is light,” (Matt. 11:30). Many consider prayer as a burden and enter into it as a chore. Is it no wonder that the answer to prayers take time in manifesting themselves?
“Now when He had taken the book, the four living creatures and the twenty-four elders fell down before the Lamb, each one having a harp, and golden bowls full of incense, which are the prayers of the set apart ones.” (Rev. 5:8). “If his offering is a sacrifice of shalom offerings; if he offers it from the herd, whether male or female, he shall offer it without blemish before יְהֹוָה.” (Lev. 3:1). In the Shalom Offering the sacrifice is to be without blemish. This sacrifice is unique amongst the offerings in that it is a sweet savour that ‘feeds’ יְהֹוָה, the priest and the offerer; there was a communion in sharing this offering (Jukes). It is my belief that prayer is the Renewed Covenant equivalent of the Shalom Offering in that יְהֹוָה, our High Priest and
Intercessor Messiah Yehshuah and the petitioner/offerer all share in the benefits of the sacrifice of prayer. However, do Believers offer up the best to יְהֹוָה? Commonly, Believers will ‘fit in’ prayer time between television programmes or when the hectic lifestyles ‘allows’ time for prayer. This is not the best that Believers can offer. Instead, Believers must set aside an appointed time and anything else must fit in around this.
“The sacrifice made by the wicked is an abomination to יְהֹוָה, But the prayer of the upright is His delight.” (Prov. 15:8). Sacrifices are the only way to make things right between man and יְהֹוָה. Before the perfect Sacrifice was offered up in the Person of Yehshuah, the sacrifices were animals. These were only accepted by יְהֹוָה when the sacrifice was offered by a truly repentant person and it was that person’s faith in that the sacrifice was only a type of the future Perfect Sacrifice. Afterwards it was belief that the Perfect Sacrifice had been offered up on our behalf. From the above verse, sacrifices not offered up in the correct manner is abhorrent to יְהֹוָה, but He takes great pleasure in His people coming to Him in prayer.
“It was so, that when Shlomo (Solomon) had made an end of praying all this prayer and supplication to יְהֹוָה, he arose from before the altar of יְהֹוָה, from kneeling on his knees with his hands spread forth toward heaven.” (1 Kgs. 8:54). “He went forward a little, and fell on the ground, and prayed that, if it were possible, the hour might pass away from Him.” (Mark 14:35). Yeshayahu (Isaiah) stood with hands raised, Shlomo (Solomon) knelt and the Master prostrated Himself, all in prayer. However, it is not the posture that is important but the right attitude in approaching יְהֹוָה `Elohiym.
The Master’s Prayers
“It happened, that when He finished praying in a certain place, one of His disciples said to Him, ‘Master, teach us to pray, just as Yochanan also taught his disciples.’” (Luke 11:1).
“When you pray, you shall not be as the hypocrites, for they love to stand and pray in the synagogues and in the corners of the streets, that they may be seen by men…But you, when you pray, enter into your inner chamber…do not use vain repetitions…(Matt. 6:5-7). The Master’s disciples saw Him retreating to a quiet place in order to pray. This must have been something that was most unusual, for they asked Him to teach them how to pray. Was it that the Master did not make an open exhibition of praying or as it the intimacy He enjoyed with the Father? Or was it the power and wisdom He displayed in His day-to-day dealing with the people? Whatever the reason, the disciples wanted and needed to know how to pray.
“He said to them, ‘When you pray, say, ‘Our Father in heaven, May your name be kept set apart. May your kingdom come. May your will be done on earth, as it is in heaven.’” (Luke 11:2-4). When teaching His followers how to pray, the Master shows that Believers are to pray to Father. This is a common Jewish format “Blessed are you יְהֹוָה our `Elohim, King
of the Universe.” The opening of prayer is a statement of praise as to whom the prayer is addressed before the petition begins. Is there sickness in Heaven? No. Is there hunger or pain or death? Again the answer is emphatically no! Then why are these so prevalent on earth? It is the belief of ATC that this is because Believers do not pray enough.
“He left them again, went away, and prayed a third time, saying the same words.” (Matt. 26:44). In Gadseman (Gethsemane), the Master prayed that His cup of suffering to pass Him by three times. The Synoptic Good News accounts of Matthew and Mark have this repetition and Luke has a brief prayer. The Matthew and Mark accounts do not have the Master asking for the coming trials to pass Him by. He was glorifying יְהֹוָה `Elohiym in that He was placing His entire Body, Soul and Spirit into the care of His heavenly Father. The Master knew that the ‘cup of suffering’ could not pass Him by, but in doing His Father’s will, the Master would be brought triumphantly through the coming hours.
“Yehshuah lifted up His eyes, and said, ‘Father, I thank you that you listened to me I know that you always listen to me, but because of the multitude that stands around I said this, that they may believe that you sent me.’ When He had said this, He cried with a loud voice, ‘El’azar, come out!’” (John 11:41b-43). The Master stands at the tomb knowing exactly what is required; so does Father. Father has heard the Master’s prayer even before He spoke but the Master spoke out aloud in order for the people to know by whose authority He prays and from where the power comes. Hearing the Master speak, none could suspect the following miracle. The Master speaks out loudly so that the crowd was under no illusion as to what the Master expects to happen. How often do Believers pray, if not in silence, then in barely a whisper so that if nothing happens, they do not look foolish? Where is the faith, the belief, the trusting in the Father who always hears?
“You did not choose me, but I chose you, and appointed you, that you should go and bear fruit, and that your fruit should remain; that whatever you will ask of the Father in my name, He may give it to you.” (John 15:16). It is to the Father whom Believers are to address their prayers and ask it in the name of His Son. This is the reward for obedience; that of the Son to the Father’s will and of Believers to their Master.
“Who is He who condemns? It is Messiah who died, yes rather, who was raised from the dead, who is at the right hand of יְהֹוָה, who also makes intercession for us.” (Rom. 8:34). It can be likened to writing a letter: the Ruach haKodesh is the means of prayer like the paper and ink; the letter is addressed to Father; and Messiah can be likened to the postal service that delivers the prayer to Father. “All things, whatever you ask in prayer, believing, you will receive,” (Matt. 21:22). Faith is the power that bears fruit from prayer.
“It happened on the next day, that Moshe said to the people, ‘You have sinned a great sin. Now I will go up to יְהֹוָה. Perhaps I shall make atonement for your sin.’ Moshe returned to יְהֹוָה, and said, ‘Oh, this people have sinned a great sin, and have made themselves gods of gold. Yet now, if you will, forgive their sin– and if not, please blot me out of your book which you have written.’” (Exod. 32:30-32). Moshe interceded for his people, here in prayer but also when he killed the Egyptian who was beating an Hebrew slave.
“Therefore Daniyel went in to Aryokh, whom the king had appointed to destroy the wise men of Bavel; he went and said thus to him: Don’t destroy the wise men of Bavel; bring me in before the king, and I will show to the king the interpretation.” (Dan. 2:24). Here Daniyel intercedes on behalf of the wise men of Bavel (Babylon). He was putting himself between the wise men and the king to prevent the king’s order to kill all the wise men who could not interpret his dream. Daniyel prayed three times daily even though he knew that he was being trapped and may lead to his death (Dan.6).
“I pray for them. I don’t pray for the world, but for those whom you have given me, for they are yours.” (John 17:9). Yochanan (John) has a detailed prayer from the Master to the Father especially regarding His disciples; immediate and all to follow in the age to come. The prayer is one sanctifying all Believers for all time. “Being in agony He prayed more earnestly. His sweat became like great drops of blood falling down on the ground.” (Luke 22:44). This intercession was not done lightly.
It is my belief that all action must be covered by prayer; in the planning stages to ensure that it is exactly what יְהֹוָה requires; during the work for guidance, wisdom and protection; and post-work for thanks-giving. Sometimes it is thought that praying was a lesser course of action especially when prayer is to cover for evangelistic work. From the three examples above, intercession is costly in time, personal comfort and even safety.
“Rejoice always. Pray without ceasing. In everything give thanks, for this is the will of יְהֹוָה in Messiah Yehshuah toward you.” (1 Thess. 5:16-18). It is vital to give thanks in the prayer, that by faith, the prayer has been answered.
“He also spoke a parable to them that they must always pray, and not give up,” (Luke 18:1). The Master knew that prayer is not always answered immediately and needed to re-assure Believers need to continue in prayer.
“Then said he to me, ‘Don’t be afraid, Daniyel; for from the first day that you did set your heart to understand, and to humble yourself before your `Elohiym, your words were heard: and I am come for your words’ sake’” (Dan. 10:12). Dani’el prayed to יְהֹוָה (the Father as he could not have prayed to the Messiah or the Set Apart Spirit), but the prayers were delayed due to enemy action.
The secular Oxford dictionary defines Patience as (n) – the capacity to accept or tolerate delay, problems or suffering without becoming annoyed or anxious. (www.oxforddictionaries.com ).This is a passive attitude that tells us to put up with a difficult situation.
However, I would like to put forward a biblically based definition; Patience (v) – the outworking of faith.
“What good is it, my brothers, if a man says he has faith, but has no works? Can that faith save him? …But do you want to know, vain man, that faith apart from works is dead?” (Jam. 2:14, 20). The Book of James is best known for the phrase ‘faith without works is dead’. Some commentators argue that Ya`akov (James) is looking back to his Jewish roots and wants Believers to come under the legal, sacrificial system of Rabbinical Judaism. This is not so. What he is saying is that a person may have faith but if it is not put to use, it is of no worth.
Take the following scenario:
Little Tommy comes home from school and says to his Mum, “Mummy, may I have a piece of toast, please?”
“Yes, but you will have to wait until I have finished the washing”
“Mummy, may I have a piece of toast please?”
“I have already said you can, but you must wait.”
“Mummy, may I have a piece of toast, please?” It does not take a genius to see that Tommy’s mummy will soon get mad.
Let’s take a look next door. Little Billy comes home and says to his mum, “Mummy, may I have a piece of toast, please?”
“Yes, but you will have to wait until I have finished the washing.”
By constantly asking for a piece of toast over and over and over again what is Tommy thinking?
“My mummy did not really hear me the first time”, so he repeats his request.
“My mummy has forgotten all about me”, so he repeats his request.
“My mummy is ignoring me”, so he repeats his request.
“My mummy does not care that I am hungry”, so he repeats his request.
It is obviously none of these.
Now, Billy knows that when his mother says she will do something, she will do it. That is good enough for Billy. He goes and sits down and waits patiently. Who do you think will get the toast first? If Tommy is not careful, he may make his mother angry and will not get anything.
How much more so does our Heavenly Father expect us to be patient?
Now let’s go back to Billy. He asks his mother once. What is his thinking?
“My mummy has promised me toast; I have as good as got it already.” He knows his mother well. She heard him the first time. He knows that as soon as she has finished the washing she will make the toast. She never ignores him and certainly does not want him to be hungry.
Who displays faith: Tommy or Billy? Can you see how being patient is the ‘works’ that shows faith is alive and active? Persistent prayer does not mean to keep on asking the same prayer over and over and over again. Rather, when we pray, ask once and give thanks for receiving. Even with no sign of the fulfilment of the prayer, constantly give thanks. Being persistent means never be disheartened if things do not seem to be happening but keep on offering up other prayers to our Heavenly Father.
Which child do you think gets the piece of toast? Being persistent means never to give up praying, but not to keep asking for the same thing: ask once and give thanks, be persistent in thanking Father by faith having received. “Without being weakened in faith, he [Abraham] did not consider his own body, already having been worn out, (he being about a hundred years old), and the deadness of Sarah’s womb. Yet, looking to the promise of יְהֹוָה, he did not waver through unbelief, but grew strong through faith, giving glory to יְהֹוָה, and being fully assured that what He had promised, He was able also to perform. And therefore it was imputed to him for righteousness.” (Rom. 4:19-22).
“Now faith is assurance of things hoped for, for proof of things not seen. Without faith it is impossible to be well pleasing to Him, for he who comes to יְהֹוָה must believe that He exists and that He is a rewarder of those who seek Him.” (Heb. 11:1,6). “Do you have faith? Have it to yourself before יְהֹוָה. Happy is he who does not judge himself in that which he approves. But he who doubts is condemned if he eats, because it is not of faith; and whatever is not of faith is sin.” (Rom. 14:22, 23). Have faith and doubt not. In reading Hebrews 11:1-40, Noach built the ark, the Patriarchs received their promises, Moshe led the Yisra`elites out of Egypt and so forth. Each one acted upon the promises of יְהֹוָה and was not disappointed.
In Hebrews Ch.11, there are several people that the Writer points out as great characters of faith. “These all died in faith, not having received the promises, but having seen adds ‘and being convinced of’ them and embraced them from afar, and having confessed that they were strangers and pilgrims on the earth.” (Heb. 11:13). Take Avraham, for example. He was promised a son when he was 75 years old, but had to wait until he was 99 years old for the promise to be fulfilled. This was accounted to him for righteousness. Now that is patience!
Every Believer, at the moment of salvation, has no doubt that the Messiah Yehshuah has gone ahead to prepare a place for them. “In my Father’s house are many mansions. If it were not so, I would have told you. I am going to prepare a place for you.” (John 14:2). The reality is that we have a place promised to us. No one has ever seen it, but in faith, believe without any shadow of a doubt that it is there. The manifestation (when we receive the actual place) will not happen until we go home to glory.
“remembering without ceasing your work of faith and labour of love and patience of hope in our Master Yehshuah the Messiah, before our יְהֹוָה and Father,”(1 Thess. 1:3 ). The life of any Believer is a trial that is ultimately sustained in the great expectation (hope) of the return of Messiah. So between the receiving of the promise of His return and its fulfilment, patience is required as the outworking of our faith.
“Let patience have its perfect work, that you may be perfect and complete, lacking in nothing.” (Jam. 1:4). Why have patience? ‘Perfect and complete, lacking nothing’ is the definition of shalom that is usually translated as peace. The ‘nothing’ is not just for spiritual things but for all things that make life worthwhile.
“But you, man of יְהֹוָה, flee these things, and follow after righteousness, godliness, faith, love, patience, and gentleness.”(1 Tim. 6:11). Rav Sha’ul (Paul) was giving instructions to Timothy whom he was grooming to be his successor. These were to be the visible traits of a godly man.
“Take, brothers, for an example of suffering and of patience, the prophets who spoke in the name of יְהֹוָה.”(Jam. 5:10). “These all died in faith, not having received the promises, but having seen adds ‘and being convinced of’ them and embraced them from afar, and having confessed that they were strangers and pilgrims on the earth.” (Heb. 11:13). We are given many examples in Scripture of people who have demonstrated great patience. There were those that suffered in the work of יְהֹוָה `Elohiym. In Hebrews Ch.11, the examples given were of people that were given a promise by יְהֹוָה and they lived out their lives accordingly. Often the promise had a future fulfilment and, even now, has not come about (End Times?).
“knowing that the testing of your faith produces patience.”(Jam. 1:3). Patience has a time factor involved. The longer the wait, the greater is the test of patience.
“and the prayer of faith will heal him who is sick, and יְהֹוָה will raise him up. If he has committed sins, he will be forgiven.”(Jam. 5:15). This verse is one of the most often quoted verses. However, Believers take it that the prayer of faith brings about instantaneous results. When nothing is seen, to have happened doubt sets in and the faith is destroyed. The Believer must take notice of the second part of the verse. The prayer is effective but it must be in יְהֹוָה’s timing. The delay between the prayer and the manifestation of the results is a test of faith and having patience is the visible evidence that a Believer trusts in the promises of יְהֹוָה, no matter what the delay. See the Parable of the Persistent Widow below.
“Wait for יְהֹוָה. Be strong, and let your heart take courage. Yes, wait for Yahua.” (Psa. 27:14). #H6960 *1994 קָוָה qavah to wait with expectation, hope. There is the idea of twisting or stretching up to the ultimate limit (Robertson) but יְהֹוָה will not test us past this ultimate breaking point.
“And if a brother or sister is naked and in lack of daily food, and one of you tells them, ‘Go in shalom, be warmed and filled;’ and yet you did not give them the things the body needs, what good is it? Even so faith, if it has no works, is dead in itself.” (James 2:15-17). Prayer must not be a substitute action, if at all possible. To do so means that the prayer is to rely upon others to carry out the work. There are prayers that are offered up to situations remote from the supplicant, but even then, it may be possible to do something of a practical nature. In the above verses, it is obvious that יְהֹוָה has brought the brother or sister to the supplicant and expects them to help. Prayer and action (faith and works) are always meant to go hand in hand.
“Then the king said to me, For what do you make request? So I prayed to the `Elohiym of heaven.” (Neh. 2:4). Nechemyah was not expecting the king’s question but was able to turn to יְהֹוָה for his answer. Prayer does not have to be along drawn out affair in order for יְהֹוָה to answer. With such a detailed answer, it would appear that Nechemyah had previously sought יְהֹוָה will for Yerushalyim, had gone over what may be needed, but also was open to יְהֹוָה’s leading. Therefore, as Nechemyah toured the city, he took practical steps to determine what was needed and brought these needs to יְהֹוָה continually in prayer. One of the most
asked questions is ‘Why does sin abound?’ It is my belief that too much time is wasted on repeated prayers. The Adversary has a multi-generational strategy that erodes moral standards slowly but inexorably moving towards the appearance of the Abomination that causes Desolation in the End Times. My wife and I wasted many hours of prayer over our son Jon when he was at home. This meant that this time could not be applied to a multitude of other causes. Believers must be more efficient in prayer and to focus on a prayer, offer it up to יְהֹוָה and move on.
“In praying, do not use vain repetitions, as the Gentiles do; for they think that they will be heard for their much speaking.” (Matt. 6:7). Persistence is not repetition. To repeat the same request over and over is not practising faith. Father’s grace, mercy and provision are sufficient to meet all our needs. It must not be thought that Father can be badgered or worse still battered into condescension (Barclay 1). The ‘vain repetitions’ are the ineffectual mutterings of non-Believing Gentiles to their deaf and mute idols of wood and stone or worse to demons. These same demons are possibly the cause of the crisis that necessitated prayer in the first place.
WARNING! “For there will arise false messiahs and false prophets and will show great signs and wonders, so as to lead astray, if possible, even the elect.” (Matt. 24:24). “Yehshuah therefore said to him, ‘Unless you see signs and wonders, you will in no way believe.’” (John 4:48). With demon-induced crises, it is possible that the demon could take away the cause just as easy as it made it. The ‘success’ of the prayer is not in the relief of the crisis, but in the deceiving of the Believer. Even when faced with the Master, the Sanhedrin would not believe in His ministry or the witness of Scripture. They demanded a physical sign but this would have left them open to deceit; walking by sight and not by faith. All Believers are called to do the contrary (2 Cor. 5:7).
A prayer of repentance must not be repeated. If יְהֹוָה `Elohiym forgives and remembers our sin no more, it is wrong for Believers to keep raking up past transgressions. However, to repeat a prayer of praise or thanksgiving is acceptable because Believers know that יְהֹוָה always hears the prayers of His people.
“The four living creatures, each one of them having six wings, are full of eyes around about and within. They have no rest day and night, saying, ‘Especially Set Apart is יְהֹוָה, Shaddai, who was and who is and who is to come!’” (Rev. 4:8). This is a picture of what it will be like in heaven. Throughout future eternity, there will be continual praising and worshiping where repetition will not be an issue.
“I tell you, although he will not rise and give it to him because he is his friend, yet because of his persistence, he will get up and give him as many as he needs.” (Luke 11:8). The word here translated as persistent is #G335 ἀναίδεια anaidea (transliteration). This is a compound of #G1 ἄλφα alpha (contrary to) + #G127 αἰδώς aidos (bashfulness, shamefacedness). Strong suggests that alpha to be compared with #G427 ἄνευ anue (without) i.e. without shame. There is no indication that there is a repetition in the request by the petitioner. The KJV translation renders this word as importunity meaning persistent. However, Thayer’s Greek Lexicon (BLB) concurs with Strong but goes further to say that importunate is a homiletic use of the word. This can only be with regards to the following passage (Luke 11:9, 10) where there could be an element of repetition or persistence. However, even this I disagree with as I believe that the continuous act of praying is not a repetition of the same prayer but not to be discouraged if no answer is apparent but keep on bringing other prayers to Father.
In the Eastern economy, the provision of hospitality is of paramount importance. Although it was the petitioner’s duty to provide hospitality, it is assumed that he did not have any food available. Hence the petitioner’s late call upon his friend. If the friend had no food available then the friend’s obligation is discharged. However, should it become known that the friend had food but refused to give it to the petitioner, and then it would have been as though the friend had refused hospitality to the late-night visitors.
“I say to you that if he will not give to him because of his friendship, he will rise because of his urgency and give him as much as is required of him.” (Luke 11:8 AENT). This shows how desperate the petitioner was to obtain food for his guests.
“But I tell you, even if he won’t get up because the man is his friend, yet because of the man’s hutzpah he will get up and give him as much as he needs.” (Luke 11:8 CJB). The Jewish word hutzpah means boldness, audacity, insolence, nerve, gall, or a combination thereof, weighted according to the situational need (Stern 1998). In this verse, the Master does not say that the friend refuses to give him the food at the first asking. He does say that if, in the unlikelihood that the friend would not get up because of the friendship, he most certainly would get up because of the petitioner’s boldness.
“Moreover, I myself say to you: keep asking, and it will be given to you; keep seeking, and you will find; keep knocking, and the door will be opened to you. For everyone who goes on asking receives, and he who goes on seeking finds, and to him who continues knocking the door will be opened.” (Luke 11:9, 10 CJB). The present participles used are usually missing in most translations. The CJB gives a closer meaning of continual asking/seeking/knocking but also conveys an element of great expectation (hope) of receiving/finding/and the door being opened. This continual action (as highlighted in the passage Luke 18:1-8 below) is that the Believer should keep on asking although there has been no indication that the prayer has been heard; seeking without finding an apparent answer; knocking without an apparent manifestation of the answer.
“He also spoke a parable to them that they must always pray, and not give up… yet because this widow bothers me, I will defend her, or else she will wear me out by her continual coming… Will not יְהֹוָה avenge His elect, who are crying out to Him day and night, and yet He exercises patience with them? I tell you that He will avenge them quickly. Nevertheless, when the Son of Man comes, will He find faith on the earth?” (Luke 18:1-8). This passage, generally known as ‘The Parable of the Persistent Widow’ must be seen in the light of the previous passage Luke 17: 11-37 where the Master was teaching upon the End Times. His followers’ thoughts were that when the Master talked of the Kingdom of `Elohiym being at hand, He was saying that it would be soon that the earthly reign of Messiah would begin and the Romans would be thrown out of Israel. The Master knew that He would soon be leaving them but they must not get discouraged if their prayers would not seem be answered. The Master questions whether, when He returns, will there be a remnant of Believers to be found. In fact, the situation would get much worse with the Gentiles eventually destroying Yerushalayim “They will fall by the edge of the sword, and will be led captive into all the nations…” (Luke 21:24a).
The Widow petitions the corrupt Judge regarding some injustice happening to her. Unfortunately, she has no husband, wealth or power therefore she is ignored. Due to her persistence, the corrupt Judge finally acts on her behalf. This is usually taken that the Widow represents Believers praying and by persistent repeating of a prayer, the Judge will hear and act. However, this parable takes the literary form known as kal v’chomer (from light to heavy) in Hebrew or a priori in Latin. This can be summed up in the phrase ‘how much more so’. Most of the commentaries on the Parable of the Persistent Widow talk about two people; the corrupt Judge and the Widow. The rest include יְהֹוָה as the Righteous Judge in contrast to the corrupt Judge. The usual meaning is, therefore, if the corrupt Judge can be persuaded to act after persistent petitions how much more so would the Righteous Judge act. It is my belief that this was not the idea that the Master wanted to convey to His listeners. This meaning does not take into account the setting and also another character mentioned in the parable – the Widow’s adversary.
As mentioned previously, the setting of the parable was during a discourse on the End Times and I would venture to give the following explanation:
The Widow is the nation of Israel who is undergoing persecution by haSatan (the Adversary) and its followers or by the surrounding nations closing in. Although the corrupt judge finally decides to address the Widow’s plight, it is only after repeated petitions and does so to stop her nagging him.
“They cried with a loud voice, saying, “How long, Master, the set apart and true, until you judge and avenge our blood on those who dwell on the earth?” (Rev. 6:10). If the corrupt Judge finally acts out of self-interest, how much more so will the Righteous Judge act when those He loves cry out to Him?
“if my people, who are called by my name, shall humble themselves, and pray, and seek my face, and turn from their wicked ways; then will I hear from heaven, and will forgive their sin, and will heal their land.” (2 Chron. 7:14).
“the people shall dwell in Tziyon at Yerushalayim (Jerusalem); you shall weep no more; He will surely be gracious to you at the voice of your cry; when He shall hear, He will answer you.” (Isa. 30:19). This is contrasted with the Righteous Judge, יְהֹוָה, who hears the cries of His people straight away.
“…Yerushalayim will be trampled down by the Gentiles, until the times of the Gentiles are fulfilled.”(Luke 21:24b). However, there may be a delay in יְהֹוָה manifestation of His answer.
“But when the children of Yisra`el cried to יְהֹוָה, יְהֹוָה raised them up a saviour…” (Jud. 3:15a). The Book of Judges tells of a series of cyclical events: the Israelites turning to false gods, provoking יְהֹוָה to anger; יְהֹוָה sending in one of the surrounding nations to punish them; יְהֹוָה providing a leader to overcome the oppression; after a short time, the Israelites falling back into idolatry. This cycle was repeated and between 734BCE and 715BCE the Israelites of the northern Kingdom of Israel were taken into captivity (2 Kgs. 17) to Ashur (Assyria). The southern Kingdom of Yahuda (Judah) did not learn from these examples and were taken into exile between 597BCE and 582 BCE (Dan 1). Each time the Jewish people cried out to יְהֹוָה `Elohiym but He could not give them what they wanted because of the continual sinning. Finally, the Roman invasion in 63 BCE culminating with the Second Temple destruction in 70CE caused the Jews to be scattered in the Diaspora.
Even today, they are waiting for Mashiyach ben Yosef to arrive and deliver them. In this the Orthodox Jews are similar to Believers as Mashiyach will return for all His people, but they do not recognise that Yehshuah was Mashiyach ben Yosef when He was alive and are still waiting whereas Believers recognised that Mashiyach ben Yosef came as prophesised in the form of Yehshuah HaNatzeret, Son of יְהֹוָה. It is my belief that יְהֹוָה has already heard their prayers but can only act when all of Israel repent and call out to Him. By closely studying the TaNaKh and history, יְהֹוָה `Elohiym can be seen to always provide a saviour and has already provided a Saviour/Messiah.
“It happened, that when He finished praying in a certain place, one of His disciples said to Him, ‘Master, teach us to pray, just as Yochanan also taught his disciples.’” (Luke 11:1). It is important to realise that the Master’s disciples asked ‘How’ and not ‘What’ to pray. The Master’s prayer is not to be continuously repeated mindlessly as some form of talisman but must be used as a template for prayer.
Why prayer is not answered
i) Not asking – “You lust, and do not have. You kill, covet, and cannot obtain. You fight and make war. You do not have, because you do not ask.” (Jam. 4:2). Although unrepented sin would be a major blockage to prayer, it is more likely that if you do not ask, you do not get. It is a fact that Father knows of our needs even before we do, yet Believers cannot be presumptuous.
ii) Not asking right – “For the creation waits with eager expectation for the sons of יְהֹוָה to be revealed.” (Rom. 8:19). Expectation #G603 ἀποκαραδοκία apokaradokia. Following on from i) if we have low expectations, then it is putting a limit on Father’s ability. If we can only pray for a little limiting יְהֹוָה because of lack of faith or false pride, they we cannot expect great things to happen. All of Creation is earnestly waiting for the promised time when Salvation shall come to it.
iii) Wrong motive – “You ask, and don not receive, because you ask amiss, so that you may spend it for your pleasures.” (Jam. 4:3). #G2560 κακῶς kakos – improperly, wrongly. יְהֹוָה `Elohiym looks at the reasons behind the prayers and cannot answer positively with selfish prayers or prayers that He knows that will not be for the growth of Believers. Unfortunately, He may grant the prayers in order to bring about discipline (cf the selection of Saul as King in 1 Sam. 8.). “Whatever you will ask in my name, that will I do, that the Father may be glorified in the Son. If you will ask anything in my name, I will do it.” (John 14:13, 14). The reason behind all prayers must be that יְהֹוָה is glorified and not so that man can be glorified or made proud and boastful in his own strength.
iv) יְהֹוָה’s will – “This is the boldness which we have toward Him, that, if we ask anything according to His will, He listens to us. And if we know that He listens to us, whatever we ask, we know that we have the petitions which we have asked of Him. (1 John 5:14, 15). Believers must pray in accordance to Father’s will, for He alone knows the beginning from the end. Knowing the Word of יְהֹוָה is a sure way to get to know the father’s will. Praying in tongues (by the Spirit) can only be done according to His will. יְהֹוָה cannot do anything and everything. There are certain things that are outside of Father’s capability. For example, יְהֹוָה cannot make anyone come to faith that does not want to, even though He has done everything possible (sent His Son, His Ruach and preachers of the Good News). Father cannot go against the free will that He gave to His Creation. Father cannot go against His Word as He is not only a loving Father, but He is also righteous and just.
v) Little faith – “But let him ask in faith, without any doubting, for he who doubts is like a wave of the sea, driven by the wind and tossed. For let that man not think that he will receive anything from יְהֹוָה. He is a double-minded man, unstable in all his ways.” (Jam. 1:6-8). “All things, whatever you ask in prayer, believing, you will receive.” (Matt. 21:22). As mentioned above, some pray in a whisper, hoping no-one hears so if the prayer is not answered, the petitioner does not lose face. The giveaway is in the use of the word if. Fasting comes into this category. Fasting is a demonstration that the petitioner relies wholly upon the Father.
vi) יְהֹוָה’s timing – “…Yerushalayim will be trampled down by the Gentiles, until the times of the Gentiles are fulfilled.” (Luke 21:24b). “Tell us, when will these things be? What is the sign that these things are all about to be fulfilled? But when you see the abomination of desolation, spoken of by Daniyel the prophet, standing where it ought not (let the reader understand), then let those who are in Yahudah flee to the mountains,” (Mark 13:4-14). When יְהֹוָה `Elohiym spoke Creation into being, He initiated a heavenly time schedule that cannot be altered. In this passage in Mark’s Good News account, the Master was asked about the End Times. Although the Master did not know when these things were to take place, He warned of the signs that were to be in place prior to the end.
vii) Enemy action – “But the prince of the kingdom of Paras (Persia) withstood me twenty-one days; but, behold, Mikha’el, one of the chief princes, came to help me: and I remained there with the kings of Paras.” (Dan. 10:13). Even a devout, righteous Believer like Dani’el has to struggle with prayer. The Adversary does not want prayer to be answered as it glorifies יְהֹוָה and edifies the petitioner increasing faith. In increasing faith, it proves harder for haSatan and its demonic forces to have influence and successes over the Believer.
viii) Repitions – “In praying, don’t use vain repetitions, as the Gentiles do; for they think that they will be heard for their much speaking.” (Matt. 6:7). I believe that continuously repeating the same prayer over and over again, in fact, hinders rather than helps. When offered him up to יְהֹוָה. The worst was when he went out at night on his motor bike. We would ask our Father to protect him but we still waited up wondering whether he would make it home. It was not until we told him to leave the home and offered him up one last time that things began to change. We said to the Father that Jon was His child and His will be done even if it meant serious injury or worse. It was not easy but we stopped taking him back from יְהֹוָה. I believe that it was the repeated offering Jon up to יְהֹוָה then claiming him back over and over again that prevented יְהֹוָה will being carried out in Jon’s life. Since then Jon has settled down and returned back to יְהֹוָה.
ix) Fasting – “But this kind doesn’t go out except by prayer and fasting.” (Matt. 17:21). Both the spirit and flesh must be disciplined
x) Wisdom – “That your faith should not be in the wisdom of men but in the power of יְהֹוָה.” (1 Cor. 2:5). Due to Mankind looking at the problem and not to יְהֹוָה, there is a tendency to limit יְהֹוָה’s power. He is limited by our prayers as He cannot move without faith (thevamp.org).
In all aspects of prayer, there must be one over-arching consideration, “He said, ‘Abba, Father, all things are possible to you. Please remove this cup from me. However, not what I desire, but what you desire.’” (Mark 14:36).
Barclay Rev. W. (1) The Gospel of Matthew, Vol.1-Chs.I to X, Saint Andrew Press, Edinburgh, 1959.
Barclay Rev. W. (2) The Gospel of Matthew, Vol.2-Chs.XI to XXVIII, Saint Andrew Press, Edinburgh, 1959.
Barclay Rev. W. (3) The Gospel of Mark, Saint Andrew Press, Edinburgh, 1960.
Barclay Rev. W. (4) The Letters to Philippians, Colossians and Thessalonians, Saint Andrew Press, Edinburgh, March 1960
Harris R.L., Archer Theological Wordbook of the Old Testament, Moody, Chicago,
G.J. Jr., Waltke B.K.(1980) Il.
Jukes A. The Law of the Offerings, The Lamp Press, London, 1954.
Robertson Palmer (2015) The Flow of the Psalms, P&R Publishing, Pitsburgh, NJ
Roth A.G. (2011) Aramaic English New Testament, 4th. Ed., Netzari Press, USA.
Stern D.H. (1998) Complete Jewish Bible, Jewish New Testament Publications, Clarksville, Md.
Strong J. (1994) Strong’s New Exhaustive Concordance of the Bible, World Bible Publishers Inc., Madison.
Strong J. (1996) The New Strong’s Complete Dictionary of Bible Words, Thomas Nelson, Nashville, Tn.
www.thevamp.org – Brian Beesly quoting John Wesley on Prayer Changes Everything.
AENT “Scripture taken from the Aramaic English New Testament Copiyright 2008. Used by permission of Netzari Press.”
DBY – J. N. Darby translated the Bible in 1890. This translation of the Bible is in the public domain.
HNV The Hebrew Names Version is based off the World English Bible, an update of the American Standard Version of 1901. This version of the Bible is in the public domain.
KJV The Authorized Version or King James Version (KJV), 1611, 1769.
Outside of the United Kingdom, the KJV is in the public domain. Within the United Kingdom, the rights to the KJV are vested in the Crown.