This study looks at Noach (Noah) and in particular the many biblical types in the Flood account.
Name definition p1
Condition of world p1
Ark construction p1
Family elected p4
Entering Ark p5
Food prohibition p6
Noach in the Renewed Covenant p6
Summary of types p7
Noach chronology p8
נֹחַ #H5146 *1323b noach rest or salvation from the root נוּחַ #H5117 *1323 nuwach spiritual rest, absence of trouble. There are two types of rest cessation of labour (shabbat) in Gen. 2:2 and entering into a state of victory or salvation (nuwach) in Exod. 20:11. Noach was named prophetically designating a temporary rest after his construction of the ark that was a type of eternal rest found in יְהֹוָה’s salvation through Messiah Yehsuah.
Col. 2:17 – “which are a shadow of the things to come; but the body is Messiah’s.” Rav. Sha’ul is describing to the Colossian Assembly what is a ‘type’ (shadow). It is something or someone that points prophetically to a much more important event or person some time in the future. The ‘antitype’ is the fulfilment of the prophetic type. Throughout Scripture the antitype is found in the reality (body) of Messiah.
6:9 – “This is the history of the generations of Noach. Noach was a righteous man, blameless among the people of his time. Noach walked with יְהֹוָה `Elohiym.”
צַדִּיק #H6662 *1879c tsaddiyq just, lawful. This is the same word Yesha’yahu used when describing the Suffering Servant (Isa. 53:11).
תָּמִים #H8549 *2522d tamiym perfect, whole, complete entire. This is the same word used when describing the condition of the animals selected for sacrifice being without spot or blemish (Exod. 12:5).This in turn was a type of Messiah (1 Pt. 1:19).
6:11,12 – “The earth was corrupt before יְהֹוָה `Elohiym, and the earth was filled with violence. יְהֹוָה `Elohiym saw the earth, and saw that it was corrupt, for all flesh had corrupted their way on the earth.”
אֶרֶץ #H776 ‘erets land and/or its people.
שָׁחַת #H7843 *2370 shachath corrupt, destroy, ruin, decay, perverted. Here, the land and all living animals were subjected to corruption and Creation had been perverted from the perfection of Gen. 1:31.
חָמָס #H2555 *678a chamac violence, cruelty, injustice, extreme wickedness. It appears that after all that was going on, it was the violence, the sins attributed to cunning and malice, which caused judgement to fall (FFOZ Vol.1 quoting Leibowitz). Due to the global nature of the Flood, it would seem that all of Creation was subjected to the coming judgement. It has been claimed that marine life-forms escaped from this. However, the mass of freshwater entering the seas would have killed off most of these. Also, the deposition of marine life found in fossil records would indicate otherwise (Westacott & Ashton).
6:14 – “Make thee an ark of gopher wood; rooms shalt thou make in the ark, and shalt pitch (1) it within and without with pitch (2)” (KJV).
תֵּבָה #H8392 *2492 tebah box. The only other time this word is used in the Tanakh is to describe the vessel that Moshe was put into on the Nile (Exod. 2:3). The Ark is the means whereby the righteous (Noach and his family) have escaped the wrath of יְהֹוָה. Therefore this is a type of the Kingdom of יְהֹוָה.
גֹּפֶר #H1613 *374 gopher the actual material is unknown. However, several theories have arisen with the wood being a resinous timber such as pine or cypress; a solid wooden frame-work in-filled with reeds (Harris et. al.) or completely constructed of reeds as seen in Egyptian hieroglyphics. The frame-work is the foundation that ultimately divides the righteous from the wicked. This wooden frame is a type of the Cross upon which atonement was secured. Whatever the material, some form of coating or caulking material would have had to be used to prevent ingress of water.
John 14:2 “In my Father’s house are many mansions (rooms). If it were not so, I would have told you. I am going to prepare a place for you.”
μονή #G3438 mo-nā’ room, a staying, abiding, dwelling or abode.
קֵן #H7064 qen nest, chamber, dwelling, room. The use of rooms by the Master in referring to the eternal abode of Believers may have suggested to His listeners the account of Noach, the Ark and ultimate salvation of the righteous.
כָּפַר #H3722 kaphar *1023, *1024 to cover, purge, make atonement for. The first use of the word ‘pitch’ (1) above is the same word that is used throughout Vayikra (Leviticus) and B’midmar (Numbers) when talking of the Temple sacrifices. All these point to the sacrifice of Messiah and its result.
כֹּפֶר #H3724 kopher *1025b bitumen, ransom, to atone by offering a substitute. In Hebrew these two words are spelt identically. It is only when later (Masoretic) vowels were added that the words were pronounced differently. The verse above would be more accurately translated ‘…and cover it inside and out with a cover.’
The external covering was there to keep out the water from the vessel. Water is a type of יְהֹוָה’s wrath. Therefore, the external covering protects against the wrath of יְהֹוָה. This is a type of salvation where the blood is applied to the cross for the forgiveness of sins. The internal covering is when the blood is applied after salvation. This again is for the forgiveness of sins but after salvation.
6:15 – “This is how you shall make it. The length of the teivah (ark) will be three hundred cubits, the breadth of it fifty cubits, and the height of it thirty cubits.” It is unfortunate that some Bible translations state these dimensions in modern terms as it is not possible to determine exactly the length of the ark cubit. There are several known cubits used in the ancient world varying from the Hebrew Short Cubit of 17.5” (44.5cm) to the Egyptian Long Cubit of 20.6” (52.3cm) (www.worldwideflood.com ). A comparison in the dimensions is given in the Table 1 below.
A further comparison between the Ark and R.M.S. Lusitania (www.rmslusitania.info) is given in Table 2.
|Hebrew Short||437.5 ft||73.0 ft||43.75 ft|
|Hebrew Short||133.5 m||22.25 m||13.35 m|
|Egyptian Long||515.0 ft||85.6 ft||51.5 ft|
|Egyptian Long||157.0 m||26.2 m||15.7 m|
|Lusitania||760 ft||87.5 ft||60.4 ft|
|Lusitania||231.5 m||26.7 m||18.4 m|
However, research has proven that the dimensional ratio L:B:D of 30:5:3 produces the best compromise of stability, seakindliness, strength, cargo capacity and survivability (www.answeringenesis; www.worldwideflood.com). In the comparison above between the Ark and R.M.S. Lusitania there is a similar B:D ratio. The length of the Cunard liner is proportionally much greater but this is due to the stronger materials of construction and the need for speed.
6:16 – “You shall make a roof in the teivah (ark), and to a cubit shall you finish it upward. You shall set the door of the teivah in the side of it. You shall make it with lower, second, and third levels.”
צֹהַר #H6672 tsohar *1883a midday, blessings *1883b roof. This is probably a skylight-like aperture made a cubit below the apex of the roof. However, the meaning is unclear and may have referred to a casement running around the eaves of the roof for most of the vessel. With the darkness of judgement and all the chaos that was happening outside of the Ark, the only light and fresh air would come from this aperture. For the blessing and refreshing, Noach and his family had to look up to the sky.
פֶּתַח #H6607 pethach opening, door, gateway. This one and only door would be located at the upper (of three) decks and included a ramp of some form. The Septuagint (LXX) translation into Greek used θύρα thyra.This is the same word #G2734used in the Greek translations of the Renewed Covenant by the Master inJohn 10:9“I am the door. If anyone enters in by me, he will be saved, and will go in and go out, and will find pasture.” In this passage of the Parable of the Good Shepherd, the Master likens the pasture to the Kingdom of יְהֹוָה and that the one and only way into the Kingdom was by Him.
6:17 – “I, even, I do bring the flood of waters on this erth, to destroy all flesh having the breath of life from under the sky. Everything that is in the earth will die.” יְהֹוָה has seen that the earth, His Creation, has been perverted and His Creation has turned away from Him therefore it is He that brings judgement upon the earth and its inhabitants.
6:18 – “But I will establish my covenant with you. You shall come into the teivah (ark), you, your sons, your wife, and your sons’ wives with you.” Here, the term covenant is ambiguous. It may be a specific promise to Noach to protect him and his family from the coming judgement with a separate covenant made to all Mankind in Gen. 9:9 (Hertz). It may also mean that this is the covenant made to all Mankind and is re-affirmed in Gen. 9:9 (Skinner).
7:1 – “יְהֹוָה said to Noach, ‘Come with all of your household into the teivah (ark), for I have seen your righteousness before me in this generation’”. I believe that this verse defines what version of the Bible should be used. In general, the literal translations have יְהֹוָה commanding Noach and his family to ‘come’ into the Ark. In the thematic translations יְהֹוָה command Noach to ‘go’ into the Ark. Some translations are ambiguous in having ‘enter’. There is nowhere in the Bible that יְהֹוָה commands Man to go away from Him into salvation. Everywhere, יְהֹוָה invites them to join Him in His Kingdom.
This verse poses a problem to me in that it is commonly understood that it was only Noach that was righteous. This verse would therefore mean that Noach’s family was saved because of his righteousness. This would be contrary to faith in Messiah (John 3:16; 10:9). The following scenarios are stated for consideration:
1) That יְהֹוָה was referring to each family member as being righteousness and was saved by their own faith;
2) That יְהֹוָה used Noach as a type of Messiah and that the family’s faith and obedience to Noach as head of the family was counted as their individual righteousness.
7:2, 3 – “You shall take seven pairs of every clean animal with you, the male and his female. Of the animals that are not clean, take two, the male and his female. Also of the birds of the sky, seven and seven, male and female, to keep seed alive on the surface of all the land.”
טָהוֹר #H2889 * 792d tahowr pure, clean. When Moshe redacted B’resheet/Genesis under inspiration of the Spirit of יְהֹוָה he may have classed clean and unclean after the revelation of Lev. 11:1-47. However, since the first death of an animal in Gan Eden to atone for Adam’s sin, I believe that Adam and future generations knew what animals were acceptable for sacrifice. Noach knew what the significance was between clean and unclean as he had to take on board the relevant numbers of the different animals. In his essay Geological Evidence for Creation Snelling writes that the number of animals required would not be that of every creature but of every kind that would go on to diversify as known today (Westacott & Ashton). If the Ark was in the (commonly acknowledged) shape of a barge and given the dimensions in Table 1 the Ark’s capacity would have been between 39600 and 64600 cubic metres.
Isa. 11:6 – “The wolf shall dwell with the lamb, and the leopard shall lie down with the kid; and the calf and the young lion and the fattened calf together; and a little child shall lead them.” This passage in Yesha’yahu is often quoted as referring to the Millennial Kingdom of יְהֹוָה. This is also a picture of what it would have been like inside the Ark. Up until the dispersion after the flood had subsided, all animals (including Man), were herbivorous and would have grazed together.
7:6 – “Noach was six hundred years old when the flood of waters came on the earth.” In the Genealogy of Adam (Gen. 5:1-32) several facts arise concerning Noach:
1) That he was the first of the pre-flood Patriarchs born after the death of Adam (Hertz).
2) That he was considerably older when his first child was born; 503 years old with the next oldest being Metushelach who was 187 years old.
3) That he was the only pre-Flood Patriarch with more than one son named.
4) That his father, Lemekh died 5 years before the Flood.
5) That he was alive when Bavel was started (Table 3 below).
7:7 – “Noach went into the teivah (Ark) with his sons, his wife, and his sons’ wives, because of the waters of the flood.” בֵּן #H1121 ben son, any male descendent, group of children both male and female. There is no mention of any grandchildren of Noach until יְהֹוָה’s command of Gen. 9:1. Although the reference to sons could have included grandchildren, the context renders this unlikely. There was only one family with Noach as its head.
7:11 – “In the six hundredth year of Noach’s life, in the second month, on the seventeenth day of the month, on the same day all the fountains of the great deep were burst open, and the sky’s windows were opened.” Snelling describes a theory of global tectonics as being יְהֹוָה way of using the earth to bring about His judgement for corrupting the earth (Westacott & Ashton). The (secular) New Year commemorated the birth of Adam and is the starting point of dates until the giving of the religious New Year in Exod. 12:2.
7:16 – “Those who went in, went in male and female of all flesh, as יְהֹוָה `Elohiym commanded him; and יְהֹוָה shut him in.” After his absolute obedience, יְהֹוָה completed the act of salvation by closing the door so that nothing could enter and the waters were kept at bay: all that could be done was done. (cf. John 19:30).
7:20 – “The waters prevailed fifteen cubits upward, and the mountains were covered.” Atheists cite this in order to refute the historic accuracy of a global flood. Taking into account Mt. Everest’s current height (8850m) and the estimated annual rate of increase in height (4mm), Mt. Everest would have been approximately 8830m during the Flood. The waters would have had to been 7m (15 cubits) higher than this globally. Snelling counters this with his global tectonic theory. If all the earth was relatively flat, then there would be sufficient water in the ocean basins to accomplish this. Mt. Everest was only created by the upheaval due to the tectonic plates of Africa and Asia colliding and was rapidly thrust up to somewhere near its current height. Although the Biblical account does not describe stormy conditions (that are typical of the common interpretation of events), Snelling’s theory would give rise to catastrophic changes on the earth. Mountain ranges and submarine ridges were formed in a very short time with corresponding tidal surges (tsunamis) of 20m high waves moving at velocities of 15-30m/s across the continental land masses.
8:7 – “and he sent forth a raven. It went back and forth, until the waters were dried up from off the earth.” The raven was a scavenger and was looking for carrion on which to feed. Most views take it that the raven was only sent out once and returned after which the dove was sent out in its place. However, this does not make sense in the light of this verse.The raven was sent out continually until the ground dried up and the raven was able to land and feed.
8:9 – “but the dove found no place to rest her foot, and she returned to him into the teivah; for the waters were on the surface of the whole earth. He put forth his hand, and took her, and brought her to him into the teivah.” As the dove is used typically to represent the Spirit of יְהֹוָה, then this verse reflects back to Gen. 1:2.
8:11 – “The dove came back to him at evening, and, behold, in her mouth was an olive leaf plucked off. So Noach knew that the waters were abated from off the earth.” The olive tree is a relatively short tree and the leaf would indicate that the waters had all but subsided. The Rabbis have a comment that when the dove returns with a bitter leaf in its mouth it appears to say ‘Better bitter food that comes from God than the sweetest food at the hands of man’ (Hertz).
8:20 – “Noach built an altar to יְהֹוָה, and took of every clean animal, and of every clean bird, and offered burnt offerings on the altar.” Although this is not the first reference to offerings (Gen. 4: 3, 4), it is the first reference to an altar being built upon which to offer a sacrifice. The burnt offering was wholly consumed by the flames (cf. Lev. 1: 1-17).
9:3 – “Every moving thing that lives will be food for you. As the green herb, I have given everything to you.” Prior to the dietary laws of Lev. 11:1-47, any animal was considered edible but not acceptable for sacrifices.
9:4 – “But flesh with the life of it, the blood of it, you shall not eat.” “It shall be a perpetual statute throughout your generations in all your dwellings, that you shall eat neither fat nor blood.” (Lev. 3:17). “You must abstain from eating food offered to idols, from consuming blood or the meat of strangled animals, and from sexual immorality. If you do this, you will do well. Farewell.” (Acts 15:29 – NLT). Of important note is the prohibition of eating anything containing blood. יְהֹוָה commanded Noach, re-affirmed it through Moshe and inspired Ya’akov (James) to include it in the letter from Yerushalayim (Council) to Gentile Believers in Asia.
Noach in the Renewed Covenant
Luke 17:26, 27 – “And as it was in the days of Nukh, likewise it will be in the days of the Son of Man. For they were eating and drinking and taking wives and giving them to husbands until the day that Nukh entered into the Ark and the flood came and destroyed everyone” (AENT). This is often quoted as referring to the Rapture. However, the context has the Master explaining how it will be when He returns back to earth. In the Noach account, it is the wicked that are swept away in judgement and wrath and the righteous being saved. This can only refer to the terrible Day of יְהֹוָה. However, as can be seen from Table 3 below, Noach was still alive when Bavel was under construction. This Patriarch experienced two of the world’s most prominent
and evil of times in history; the Flood and the Dispersion of the Nations. So it shall be when Messiah returns back to earth that evil will be at its fullest.
Heb. 11:7 – “By faith, Noach, being warned about things not yet seen, moved with godly fear, prepared a teivah for the saving of his house, through which He condemned the world, and became heir of the righteousness which is according to faith.” Noach obediently built the Ark and must have been capable of carrying multitudes of people. However, by the rejection of Noach’s preaching both verbally and by his actions, the rest of Mankind condemned itself.
1 Peter 3:19, 20 – “ which were formerly disobedient in the days of Noah when the longsuffering of Elohim commanded an ark to be made, in the hope of their repentance; and eight souls only entered into it and were kept alive in the waters. And you also, by a like figure, are made alive by immersion (not when you wash your bodies from filth, but when you confess Elohim with a pure conscience) and by the resurrection of Yehshuah the Mashiyach (AENT). This does not mean that a person is saved by immersion (baptism) but by the obedience of faith in יְהֹוָה and the power behind the resurrection of His Son, HaMashiyach.
2 Peter 2:5, 9 – “And (if Elohim) did not spare the former world but preserved Noah the eighth person, a preacher of righteousness when he brought a flood on the world of the wicked…Master יְהֹוָה knows how to rescue from afflictions those who fear him, and he will reserve the wicked for the day of judgement to be tormented,” (AENT). As with Noach, all those who reverently fear יְהֹוָה and put their complete trust in Him will be saved from the coming Day of Judgement and subsequent eternal punishment.
Summary of Types in the Noach Account.
Noach/Messiah – righteous and without spot or blemish; head of the saved family.
Ark/Kingdom of יְהֹוָה – that into which יְהֹוָה calls us for salvation, contains only one family.
Wooden Frame/Cross – that which seperates the righteous from the wicked.
Pitch/Blood – that which covers and seals from the effects of the judgement and wrath of יְהֹוָה and atones for sin.
Skylight/Heaven – from where blessings and refreshing come.
Door/Messiah – the only way through which to gain entrance into the Kingdom of יְהֹוָה.
Waters/Wrath – that which destroys sinners.
Door shutting/Crucifixion – the finished work of salvation.
Dove/Spirit – hovers over the surface of the waters.
Blood/Life – so precious it must only be used for an offering.
|Noach Born||5:30||2948/821||0||All dates are taken from Archbishop James Ussher’s dating of the Flood (answersingenesis). BCE refers to Before the Common Era. Even if Ussher’s actual dates are incorrect, the time scale would remain the same as it is taken from Scripture.|
|Ark Started||5:32||2448/1321||500||This verse is generally taken that Noach’s eldest son was born but the reading would mean that Noach had triplets which is contrary to Scripture. All the pre-Flood Patriarchs in Gen. 5:1-31 are stated as having lived and died: v32 simply states that Noach was 500 years old and that he had three sons. It is my belief that this verse indicates the commencement of the ark and Noach’s preaching.|
|Shem Born||11:10||2445/1323||503||Dated from the Flood’s end.|
|Yefet Born||10:21||2443/1325||505||Shem was the older brother of Yefet. This date is an estimation.|
|Ham Born||9:24||2440/1330||508||Ham was Noach’s youngest son. This date is an estimation.|
|Flood Start||7:11||2348/1421||600||Ussher’s date. Shem was approx. 98 years old.|
|Flood End||8:13||2347/1422||601||All dates that are mentioned after the Flood have been taken from the departure from the ark.|
|Peleg Born||11:10-16||2246/1523||702||Dated from Shem’s birth.|
|Bavel Started||11:4||2242/1527||706||Ussher’s date.|
|Bavel Halted||10:25||2241/1528||707||There is no Scriptural evidence that this refers to any geophysical event. אֶרֶץ #H776 ‘erets can mean land, earth or nations. It would, therefore more likely mean when the nations were confused and dispersed.|
|Peleg Died||11:18||2007/1761||940||Peleg would have been a witness of Bavel, the dispersion and contemporary of Nimrod.|
|Noach Died||9:28||1997/1811||950||Noach would have been a witness of Bavel, the dispersion and contemporary of Nimrod.|
|11:13||1907/1901||—–||Arpakhshad would have been a witness of Bavel, the dispersion and contemporary of Nimrod.|
|Shelach Died||11:15||1877/1931||—–||Shelach would have been a witness of Bavel, the dispersion and contemporary of Nimrod.|
|Shem Died||11:11||1845/1963||—–||Shem would have been a witness of Bavel, the dispersion and contemporary of Nimrod.|
|Ever Died||11:17||1816/1992||—–||Ever would have been a witness of Bavel, the dispersion and contemporary of Nimrod.|
FFOZ Vol.1 Torah Treasures, FFOZ, Littleton, Colorado, USA.
Harris R.L., Archer Theological Wordbook of the Old Testament, Moody, Chicago,
G.J. Jr., Waltke B.K.(1980) Il.
Hertz J.H. Dr. (1987) The Pentateuch and Haftorahs, 2nd. Ed. Socino Press, London.
Skinner J. D.D.(1912) Genesis, T&T Clark, Edinburgh.
Strong J.(1994) Strong’s New Exhaustive Concordance of the Bible, World Bible Publishers Inc., Madison.
Strong J.(1996) The New Strong’s Complete Dictionary of Bible Words, Thomas Nelson, Nashville.
Westacott M.J. & The Big Argument, Ch.9, The Geological Evidence for Creation
Ashton J.F. Ph.D. A.A.Snelling, Strand Pub., Sydney, Aust.
AENT “Scripture taken from the Aramaic English New Testament Copyright 2008. Used by permission of Netzari Press.”
HNV The Hebrew Names Version is based off the World English Bible, an update of the American Standard Version of 1901. This version of the Bible is in the public domain.
King James Version (KJV) Outside of the United Kingdom, the KJV is in the public domain. Within the United Kingdom, the rights to the KJV are vested in the Crown. This Bible is printed and published by Cambridge University Press, the Queen’s royal printer, under royal letters patent. The text commonly available now is actually that of the 1769 revision, not that of 1611. The text used by BLB is the current 1769 edition.
Scripture quotations marked (NLT) are taken from the Holy Bible, New Living Translation, copyright © 1996, 2004, 2007. Used by permission of Tyndale House Publishers Inc., Carol Stream, Illinois 60188. All rights reserved.