This study looks at Nicolaitans; who they buy an essay were historically and their role in the modern world given the stern warnings of Rev. 2:1, 6.
Assemblies at Ephesus and someone to write a paper for me Pergamum p1.
Nicolaitans definition p2.
Izebel (Jezebel) p4 – Assemblies at Thyatira and Sardis.
Nicolaitans and the modern Church p5.
The Master’s refutation of doctrine p6.
Babylonian exile p9.
“To the messenger of the Assembly in Ephesus write…But this you have, that you hate the works of the Nicolaitans, which I also hate.” (Rev. 2:1a, 6). Hate #G3404 μισέω miseō means to detest. The term Nicolaitans may not have been a definite sect of people but rather a description of a type of people (Cross). If there is such a warning, then it must be necessary to understand who or what are Nicolaitans.
“To the messenger of the Assembly in Pergamum write…But I have a few things against you, because you have there some who hold the teaching of Bil`am, who taught Balak to throw a stumbling block before the children of Yisra’el, to eat things sacrificed to idols, and to commit sexual immorality. So you also have some who hold to the teaching of the Nicolaitans likewise.” (Rev. 2:12a, 15, 16). The Renewed Covenant has little to say about the Nicolaitans, other than these two passages, the former to the Assembly at Ephesus and the latter to the Assembly at Pergamos.
Ephesus was a major city in Asia and was the centre of pagan worship. The Temple of Artemis (Diana) was located there and was considered to be one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World. Pergamos was the capital of the region and was the centre of worship of Zeus and Asclepios who was depicted by a serpent entwined around a staff. Temples in the Graeco-Roman world were home to religious prostitutes. Thus any compromise that would bring in to the Assemblies greater numbers of the upper classes of society would be promulgated (Barclay Revelation).
However, their beliefs may be considered as Bil’amites of which Shimon Keefa and Yehuda both warn against (2 Peter 2:15; Jude 11). These passages warn against satisfying the flesh and leading others astray. “that you abstain from things sacrificed to idols, from blood, from things strangled, and from sexual immorality, from which if you keep yourselves, it will be well with you. Farewell.” (Acts 15:29).Ya’akov ruled at the Council of Yerushalayim against such practices.
“Yisra’el abode in Shittim; and the people began to play the prostitute with the daughters of Mo’av: for they called the people to the sacrifices of their gods; and the people ate, and bowed down to their gods. Yisra’el joined himself to Ba`al-Pe`or: and the anger of יְהֹוָה was kindled against Yisra’el.” (Num. 25:1-3). Having failed to bring about the destruction of the Isra’elites through curses, Balaam instructed Balak in other ways to bring down then Isra’elites. This was done by enticing the people into sexual immorality and idol worship. Many of the commandments were specifically laid down to keep the Isra’elites separate from the surrounding pagan nations and set apart unto Him. At Pe’or, they failed on all accounts.
“Behold, these caused the children of Yisra’el, through the counsel of Bil`am, to commit trespass against יְהֹוָה in the matter of Pe`or, and so the plague was among the congregation of יְהֹוָה. Now therefore kill every male among the little ones, and kill every woman who has known man by lying with him.” (Num. 31:16, 17). Bil’am’s error was to cause the
Isre’alites to turn away from יְהֹוָה `Elohiym who had brought them out of Egypt. Not only were the Israelites committing fornication but fell into Ba’al worship. Moshe’s instructions were to destroy the surrounding nations so that they would never again be led astray. These were not carried fully carried out. The prostitute/whore/harlot is a type of person (male or female) that leads others into sin.
“Also all that generation were gathered to their fathers: and there arose another generation after them, who did not know יְהֹוָה, nor yet the work which He had worked for Yisra’el. The children of Yisra’el did that which was evil in the sight of יְהֹוָה, and served the Ba`alim; and they forsook יְהֹוָה, the `Elohiym of their fathers, who brought them out of the land of Mitzrayim, and followed other gods, of the gods of the peoples who were round about them, and bowed themselves down to them: and they provoked יְהֹוָה to anger. They forsook יְהֹוָה, and served Ba`al and the `Ashtarot.” (Judges 2.10-13). The result of disobeying יְהֹוָה commands through Moshe took only a generation to come about. “The children of Yisra’el again did that which was evil in the sight of יְהֹוָה, and served the Ba`alim, and the `Ashtarot, and the gods of Aram, and the gods of Tzidon, and the gods of Mo’av, and the gods of the children of `Ammon, and the gods of the Pelishtim; and they forsook יְהֹוָה, and didn’t serve him.” (Judges 10:6). “In those days there was no king in Yisra’el: every man did that which was right in his own eyes.” (Judges 21:25).
בִּלְעָם Bil’am (Hebrew) = בָּלַע bala` – to swallow up (conquer) + עַם `am people
Νικόλαος Nicolaus (Greek) = νῖκος nikos to utterly vanquish (conquer) + λαός laos people.
The name Balaam had an evil connotation to the early Assemblies from the original account (Num. 22:1-24:25) and the term Nicolaitans would have been more acceptable to its early adherents. Tertullian mentions another sect, the Cainites as ‘alii Nicolaite’ (Barclay Revelation quoting Tertullian). These were trying to amalgamate the Person of Messiah with the false deity of Belial (Fairbairn) even though it was in direct opposition to Sha’ul’s instructions to the Corinthian Assembly (2 Cor. 6:15). The Nicolaitans were also accused of denying יְהֹוָה `Elohiym as Creator. Other early Church Fathers equated the Cainites with the Ophites and Sephites who were opposed to יְהֹוָה, glorified the Serpent and considered the Fall as a progression from ignorance to knowledge (Cross).
Whereas Nicolaus’ teaching was that the flesh was bad, his outworking was to punish or mortify his flesh. However, early Church leaders had the Nicolaitans’ doctrine very different from this:
Irenaeus – the Nicolaitans lived a life of unrestrained indulgence.
Hippolytus – the Nicolaitans departed from correct doctrine and encouraged indifference to food and life.
Clement of Alexandria – the Nicolaitans could use or abuse their flesh as shamelessly as they wanted.
There is some early tradition that some Believers were following heretical teaching attributed to Nicolaus, a gentile יְהֹוָה -fearer from Antioch in the process of becoming a Jew (a proselyte). His teaching was that the flesh was totally evil and that severe self-punishment (whipping, fasting, penitence) could bring one closer to יְהֹוָה (to be taken up by the Roman Catholic Church). The following verses, although probably not available to him, would be the kind of teaching that led to excesses.
“For I know that in me, that is, in my flesh, dwells no good thing. For desire is present with me, but I don’t find it doing that which is good.” (Rom 7:18).
“deliver such a one to haSatan for the destruction of the flesh, that his spirit may be saved in the day of the Master Yehshuah.” (1 Cor. 5:5).
“Therefore, having these promises, beloved, let us cleanse ourselves from all filthiness of the flesh and spirit, perfecting holiness in the fear of יְהֹוָה.” (2 Cor. 7:1).
“Those who belong to Messiah have crucified the flesh with its passions and lusts.” (Gal. 5:24).
Whether Nicolaus’ teachings had been perverted in later years or that there was no relationship between Nicolaus and the Nicolaitans cannot be definitively proven.
The doctrines of the Nicolaitans can be summarised as follows:
1) The Law is ended, there are no laws , rules or regulations and so they could do whatever they wanted:
2) Flesh is evil and spirit is good, and as a spirit being, a man could do whatever he liked to the body as it did not matter:
3) Grace is all-sufficient and would protect them. Antinomianism – if sin is an opportunity for יְהֹוָה to display His Grace, the more a person sins, the more opportunity for יְהֹוָה to display Grace:
4) They wanted Believers to compromise the teachings given to them so that the difference between the pagans and themselves would lessen, making it more attractive to non-Believers to join them. This was mostly aimed at the upper levels of society (Barclay Revelation):
5) They wanted to introduce a system of hierarchy in the clergy that was man-inspired and not יְהֹוָה -called. There would be no direct access to יְהֹוָה through the mediation of Messiah, but had to go through the priest, bishop, Mary or dead saints (see Izebel below).
This last doctrine of the Nicolaitans can be seen in the trend of denominations. The initial founders of the various denominations were true Believers following the teachings of the Master and the Bible. However, over time, the Headship of Messiah is replaced by an ecclesiastical hierarchy (see below). This was derived from the association of the Nicolaitans with Nimrod.
“‘Like Nimrod, a mighty hunter before יְהֹוָה.’ The beginning of his kingdom was Bavel, Erekh, Akkad, and Kalneh, in the land of Shin`ar.’” (Gen. 10:9b, 10). #H5248 נִמְרֹד Nimrod means rebellion or valiant depending upon the spelling. This is the first reference to an earthly kingdom and the inference was that Nimrod expanded it through force i.e. to conquer and subjugate the surrounding people. He was considered to be a tyrant and enlarged and maintained his empire by violent, despotic means (Skinner). He set up a form of government that was hierarchical in structure and his expansionism was to instigate a one-world authoritarian religious government. Nimrod ruled through fear and taught his subjects to fear and depend upon him and not on יְהֹוָה `Elohiym. As the Flood was still fresh in the memories of the people, Nimrod had contempt for יְהֹוָה and thus started to build the Tower of Bavel so that Man would no longer be under the threat of another deluge (Josephus). However, this seems most unlikely as the tower was built on a plain and not in the mountains. It is also the first mention of Man deliberately rebelling against יְהֹוָה and falling into apostasy. Nimrod is known throughout ancient history by many different names. He appears as the main character in all pantheons (Egyptian, Greek, Roman, Norse etc. www.youtube.com ) but is commonly called Ba’al (www.bible-history.com).
“To the messenger of the Assembly in Thyatira write…But I have this against you, that you tolerate your woman, Izevel, who calls herself a prophetess. She teaches and seduces my servants to commit sexual immorality, and to eat things sacrificed to idols.” (Rev. 2:18a, 20). Although Messiah does not actually name the Nicolaitans in His condemnation of the Assembly at Thyatira, Izebel is said to lead the Church into Balaam’s doctrine. There are two differing opinions as to whom ‘Izebel’ refers:
1) Izebel was a particular woman, probably a prophetess or witch, that was using her position to corrupt the Thyatiran Assembly:
2) Izebel was symbolic of the Roman Catholic Church (ref. 1&2 Kings):
a) Idol worship (Mary, dead saints, angels);
b) Persecution of true Believers;
c) Refusal to repent, especially considering the doctrine of ‘Papal Infallibility’;
d) As the dominant doctrine of the End Times One-world Religion.
“It happened, as if it had been a light thing for him (Ahab) to walk in the sins of Yarov`am the son of Nevat, that he took as wife Izevel the daughter of Etba`al king of the Tzidonim, and went and served Ba`al, and worshiped him.” (1 Kgs. 16:31). Throughout the Tanakh, Ba’al worship caused the Israelites to turn away from יְהֹוָה and bring about judgement upon themselves. Izevel is the archetypical whore against which Scripture warns (Rev. 2:20). “And on her forehead a name was written, ‘MYSTERY, BAVEL THE GREAT, THE MOTHER OF THE PROSTITUTES AND OF THE ABOMINATIONS OF THE ERETZ.’” (Rev. 17:5). Bavel here is not a person or even a city but rather a system of religion that leads people astray. It started at Bavel with Nimrod; carried on through the days of Moshe, the Judges and the kings of Israel and Yehuda. “A mighty angel took up a stone like a great millstone and cast it into the sea, saying, ‘Thus with violence will Bavel, the great city, be thrown down, and will be found no more at all.’” (Rev. 18:21). . However the city most associated with or the centre of this system is the physical indication of the system and that it has been destroyed. It is active today and will be until its destruction stated in this verse.
“And to the messenger of the Assembly in Sardis write… Wake up, and keep the things that remain, which you were about to throw away… Nevertheless you have a few names in Sardis that did not defile their garments. They will walk with me in white, for they are worthy.” (Rev.3:1-4). Even in the Assembly at Sardis, Believers were turning away from sound doctrine and following false teachings and continuing a lifestyle of sin. The inference is that if a few have not followed this course, many have.
The Nicolaitans and the Modern Church.
Although the Assemblies above are historic it is widely accepted that each Assembly represents a particular stage in the development of the Church Universal and that throughout time each characteristic will be continuously displayed but with one characteristic being prominent. There is no evidence of an Assembly at Thyatira, but this and the other Assemblies are central hubs in their various locations, out from which information is disseminated. From the doctrine summary above the characteristics and doctrine can now be seen as becoming more and more wide-spread in the various churches today. It is vital to realise that this particular danger will come from within the Church. Out of seven Assemblies, two are not criticised by Messiah (Philadelphia and Smyrna) and one is apathetic (Laodicea). That leaves four Assemblies that show the traits of the Nicolaitans.
“For there will arise false messiahs, and false prophets, and they will show great signs and wonders, so as to lead astray, if possible, even the elect.” (Matt. 24:24). “He led Him to Yerushalayim, and set Him on the pinnacle of the temple, and said to Him, ‘If you are the Son of `Elohiym, cast yourself down from here, for it is written, ‘He will give His angels charge concerning you, to guard you;’ and, ‘On their hands they will bear you up, Lest perhaps you dash your foot against a stone.'” (Luke 4:9-11). Through the lack of faith, the church is desperately seeking signs and wonders and holds on to every teaching that offers them. That is not to say that miracles no longer happen. However, not only the miracle but the method and person involved must be carefully weighed against Scripture.
“But the Spirit says expressly that in later times some will fall away from the faith, paying attention to seducing spirits and doctrines of demons,” (1 Tim. 4:1). “The devil said to Him, ‘I will give you all this authority, and their glory, for it has been delivered to me; and I give it to whomever I want. If you therefore will worship before me, it will all be yours.’”(Luke 4:6, 7). Power has always been a seductive draw and can be seen in the desire of men within the Church to attain to positions of authority. This is made possible by the hierarchical system seen in most religions, faiths and denominations today. There is also the danger of compromise that substitutes the Word of יְהֹוָה and His Commands with the opinions and false interpretations of the Church leaders.
Compromise can also be seen in the ecumenical movement in bringing together all the different religions of the world. The premise is to engage in dialogue in order to remove the causes of enmity between them. Many organisations are currently seeking to bring aboutthis reconciliation. This can only occur when the differences are set aside. These organisations include The Elijah Interfaith Institute, Inter-religion International Meetings, Tantur Ecumenical Institute, Sant’Egido and Freemasonry (especially Royal Arch Masonry).
“Now the works of the flesh are obvious, which are: adultery, sexual immorality, uncleanness, lustfulness, idolatry, sorcery, hatred, strife, jealousies, outbursts of anger, rivalries, divisions, heresies, envyings, murders, drunkenness, orgies, and things like these; of which I forewarn you, even as I also forewarned you, that those who practice such things will not inherit the Kingdom of `Elohiym.” (Gal. 5:19-21). “The devil said to Him, ‘If you are the Son of `Elohiym, command this stone to become bread.’”(Luke 4:3). It is human nature to want the easy way of life and any doctrine that can make life easier, more palatable is a popular one. Most people attend church today for what they can get out of it rather than what they can put into it. Throughout the Master’s ministry, He constantly challenges His followers with a difficult life; one of persecution and service.
“For you, brothers, were called for freedom. Only do not use your freedom for gain to the flesh, but through love be servants to one another.” (Gal. 5:13). The Nicolaitans have blatantly ignored Rav. Sha’ul’s teachings. Little wonder that the doctrine of the Nicolaitans was hated by Messiah for perverting liberty for license.
The three references to Luke above are the three temptations haSatan tested the Master at the very beginning of His ministry. Each time the Master refuted the Adversary’s attempts for the Him to by-pass His ministry and to declare Himself the long-awaited Mashiyach Ben David. Little did it know that one day the Master will reveal Himself as Mashiyach ben David, but that would only be possible after He revealed Himself as Mashiyach ben Yosef. The birth, life, ministry, death and resurrection of the Master are the perfect examples for all Believers to follow and given for Man’s benefit. It is my belief that the Master included these trials so that Man can have the perfect example of how to counter haSatan. The Master could well have refuted haSatan in other ways but it was imperative that Man should know. Hence, as only the Master knew the details of the trials (as opposed someone being a witness to the scene), shows the extreme importance of this encounter.
Let us now consider the doctrines above and counter as the Master did by stating what is written:
1) The Law is ended: “For most assuredly, I tell you, until heaven and earth pass away, not even one smallest letter or one tiny pen stroke shall in any way pass away from the law, until all things are accomplished.” (Matt. 5:18). This is not the normal argument between the Written Law (Mosaic) and the Oral Law (Pharisaic) or even Law versus Grace. The Nicolaitans preached that all Law was done away with and with no standard to follow nor any sanctions against them they could do whatever they wanted.
2) Flesh is evil: “יְהֹוָה `Elohiym created man in His own image. In יְהֹוָה‘s image He created him; male and female He created them. יְהֹוָה saw everything that He had made, and, behold, it was very good. There was evening and there was morning, the sixth day.”(Gen. 1:27, 31). יְהֹוָה `Elohiym specifically formed or created Man a opposed to the rest of Creation that
יְהֹוָה `Elohiym spoke into existence. Man was the last and pinnacle of Creation to which יְהֹוָה `Elohiym called very good. Therefore, Man (spirit, soul and flesh) is not intrinsically evil. It may be argued that the flesh is the only inert part of Man as it operates only under the influence of the spirit and soul. Even physical substance dependency can be attributed to the soul desiring something before the addiction sets in or even in some cases may be caused by demon possession or attack.
3) All-sufficient grace: “What shall we say then? Shall we continue in sin, that grace may abound? May it never be! We who died to sin, how could we live in it any longer?” (Rom. 6:1, 2). Rav Sha’ul directly counters this doctrine by asking how is it possible that a Believer would want to consciously sin. This is not to say that a Believer would or should never fall to temptation, but the Nicolaitans wanted to escalate the degree of sinning.
4) Compromise: “No servant can serve two masters, for either he will hate the one, and love the other; or else he will hold to one, and despise the other. You are not able to serve יְהֹוָה and mammon.”(Luke 16:13). The compromise that is facing the Church today is the accommodation of the world’s values when compared to the Word of יְהֹוָה. It is sad to say that this Scripture has proven to be accurate. In order to attract more people into the mainstream churches, there has been an inexorable move away from יְהֹוָה standards towards the world’s standards.
5) Hierarchy: “He gave some to be apostles; and some, prophets; and some, evangelists; and some, shepherds and teachers; for the perfecting of the set apart ones, to the work of serving, to the building up of the body of Messiah;” (Eph. 4:11). This is often quoted as proof-text for the basis upon which a hierarchical church is founded. Alternately the early ministry of the Master consisted of the Master, an inner group of Shimon Keefa, Ya’akov and Yochanan, the outer group comprising of the other Shlichim and finally His followers. These offices are not meant to be in a position of authority but are to serve the Church in instructing the assembly. This can only be accomplished if the teaching is in accordance with the Word of יְהֹוָה (www.messianicjews.com.au ).
“But not so with you. But one who is the greater among you, let him become as the younger, and one who is governing, as one who serves. For who is greater, one who sits at the table, or one who serves? Is it not he who sits at the table? But I am in the midst of you as one who serves.” (Luke 22:26, 27). The hierarchical system is designed so that man is exalted within the fellowship and the leadership can lord it over the congregation. The prime examples of this are those ecclesiastics that display their positions like peacocks using brightly coloured garments and symbols of office. How far away are these examples from that set by the Master? He disrobed and washed the feet of His Shlichim. In the references, there are several websites promoting ecumenicalism – the coming together of various religions. All leaders display the trappings of authority and titles like ‘His All-holiness. How unlike the Master who instructed His Shlichim not to take two cloaks with them on their travels and who Himself corrected an enquirer who call Him ‘good’.
“But how does יְהֹוָה answer him? ‘I have reserved for myself seven thousand men, who have not bowed the knee to Ba`al.’ Even so then at this present time also there is a remnant according to the election eyes that they should not see, and ears that they should not hear, to this very day of grace… What then? That which Yisra’el seeks for, that he did not obtain, but the elect obtained it, and the rest were hardened. According as it is written, ‘יְהֹוָה gave them a spirit of stupor, eyes that they should not see, and ears that they should not hear, to this very day.’” (Rom. 11:4-8). Throughout history, many Believers have worshipped Ba’al through ignorance of the Word or not following the leading of the Spirit. However, there has always been a core of true Believers that have not been deceived.
“But if some of the branches were broken off, and you, being a wild olive, were grafted in among them, and became partaker with them of the root and of the richness of the olive tree;” (Rom. 11:17). “Therefore remember that once you, the Gentiles in the flesh, who are called “uncircumcision” by that which is called “circumcision,” (in the flesh, made by hands); that you were at that time separate from Messiah, alienated from the commonwealth of Yisra’el, and strangers from the covenants of the promise, having no hope and without יְהֹוָה in the world. But now in Messiah Yehshuah you who once were far off are made near in the blood of Messiah.” (Eph. 2:11-13). Both Jewish and Gentile Believers are now united into the commonwealth of Isra’el but the lessons of history have not been learnt. Many Believers today have been carried off into a Babylonian Exile for their disobedience and presumptive arrogance. King Hizkiyahu was a righteous leader but after witnessing the sundial move backwards, it is my belief that he became proud of his accumulated treasures and presumed that יְהֹוָה would not allow it to be taken away from him. This arrogance led to the sacking of the Yerushalayim and the leading off of the nobles and leaders (hierarchy) of Yehuda. Only a remnant of vineyard and farm workers was not carried off into the Babylonian Exile (2 Kgs. 20:1-21; 24:10-25:21).
“The king spoke to Ashpenaz the master of his eunuchs, that he should bring in certain of the children of Yisra’el, even of the seed royal and of the nobles; youths in whom was no blemish, but well-favored, and skillful in all wisdom, and endowed with knowledge, and understanding science, and such as had ability to stand in the king’s palace; and that he should teach them the learning and the language of the Kasdim… Then the king commanded to call the magicians, and the enchanters, and the sorcerers, and the Kasdim, to tell the king his dreams. So they came in and stood before the king.” (Dan. 1:3, 4; 2:2). During the exile in Babylon, the Jews were subjected to a culture of Ba’al (Marduk) worship and the associated occultic practices, especially during the latter part of the exile under Koresh, King of Persia. It was common practice of the Persians to unify the various displaced people by having them speak the same language. This was in direct opposition to the will of יְהֹוָה `Elohiym (Gen. 11: 1-9) where the people were scattered and different languages were instigated (Herrmann).
“You are wearied in the multitude of your counsels: let now the astrologers, the star-gazers, the monthly prognosticators, stand up, and save you from the things that shall come on you.” (Isa. 47:13). The prophet Yesha’yahu describes the occultic practices of the Babylonians and Persians and warns them of the impending judgement to all who are associated with these abominations.
“Hear you this, house of Ya`akov, who are called by the name of Yisra’el, and are come forth out of the waters of Yehudah; who swear by the name of יְהֹוָה, and make mention of the `Elohiym of Yisra’el, but not in truth, nor in righteousness (for they call themselves of the set apart city, and stay themselves on the `Elohiym of Yisra’el; יְהֹוָה of Hosts is His name):” (Isa. 48:1, 2). This terrible indictment is upon those who profess faith but are still held captive by the seductive nature of Babylon/One-world Religion.
“Oh that you had listened to my commandments! Then had your shalom been as a river, and your righteousness as the waves of the sea… Go you forth from Bavel, flee you from the Kasdim; with a voice of singing declare you, tell this, utter it even to the end of the earth: say you, יְהֹוָה has redeemed His servant Ya`akov.” (Isa. 48:18, 20). The prophet Yesha’yahu warns the people of Isra’el of the consequences of being united with the people of Babylon by their refusal to listen to יְהֹוָה. Even today, many Believers are not being obedient to יְהֹוָה through the leading of His Spirit and are thus held captive by the religious system known as Babylon.
It is also my belief that the Babylonian Exile is a type of an End Times Babylonian Exile wherein יְהֹוָה `Elohiym allows the One-world Religion (Izevel) to ‘carry off’ or lead Believers into ‘captivity’. It does not take much scrutiny of modern ‘Christianity’ to realise this. There are two main areas where this is evident:
1) in teachings that are in direct contradiction to Scripture i.e. Mary/saints worship, gifts of the Spirit, dispensationalism (role of Israel), immorality.
2) in teachings that are ‘traditions of the elders’ i.e. Christmas, Easter, cessationalism (termination of Law), Names of Father and Son.
Although the Jews that were carried off originally kept to יְהֹוָה Laws, the lifestyle in Babylon was not harsh. There were large communities that were allowed to farm, accumulate wealth and to keep their religious observations. However, due to the false prophets (that were partially to blame for the exile), large numbers were content to compromise/assimilate with the pagan population and fell into a comfortable but idolatrous existence. (www.jewishencyclopedia.com).
“He cried with a mighty voice, saying, “Fallen, fallen is Bavel the great, and she has become a habitation of demons, a prison of every unclean spirit, and a prison of every unclean and hateful bird!..I heard another voice from heaven, saying, ‘Come out of her, my people, that you have no participation in her sins, and that you don’t receive of her plagues,’” (Rev. 18:2, 4). Even at the very last opportunity, in His mercy, יְהֹוָה `Elohiym calls out to His people.
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Cross F.L.(1966) The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church, Oxford University Press, London.
Fairbairn Rev. P. The Imperial Bible Dictionary Vol.I, Blackie & Sons
Herrmann S. (1979) A History of Israel in Old Testament Times.
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Skinner J. (1912) A Critical and Exegetical Commentary on Genesis, T&T Clark, Edinburgh.
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HNV The Hebrew Names Version is based off the World English Bible, an update of the American Standard Version of 1901. This version of the Bible is in the public domain.